By the 16th Century, wigs of varying shapes and sizes were an every day items for ladies, and they were starting to become more popular with men. This was largely due to the influence of Queen Elizabeth I, whose reign began in 1558. Women dyed their hair red to emulate the Queen's natural hue, and her extensive collection of wigs influenced a lasting trend. Catherine de’ Medici (1519-1589) even paid a woman to provide hair for her daughter's wig, and Mary Queen of Scots (1542-1587) amassed an even larger collection of wigs than Elizabeth I.
By Louis' death, however, people were more interested in blending wigs with their natural hair to create a more natural look. Wigs gradually started to get smaller, and the toupee was born. This new trend had a very negative effect for wig makers - there was even a law pass to make sure men bought and wore wigs, as more and more men were favouring their natural hair. Wigs quickly began to be a symbol of the aristocracy and, by the beginning of the 19th Century, wigs were only really worn by elderly or conservative men.
Wigs made a comeback in the mid-20th Century. They were worn by Hollywood actors and actresses and people who wanted to disguise hair problems. Their convenience made them easier than ever to wear and maintain - many women took theirs to the hairdresser to be washed, coloured, styled, etc, and it even became possible to buy pre-bleached wigs. By the 1960s, the popularity of The Beatles came with new trends in hair, and more people wore wigs in order to emulate their Mod-style haircuts. Wigs were no longer stigmatised or worn only by select groups, they were once again a fashion statement and continued the trend for copying hairstyles of respected figures - which was, in the case of the late 20th and early 21st Century, celebrities.
Wigs are still used extensively today, in fact it is more common than ever to see people - particularly women - wearing some kind of hair piece to enhance their natural style. They are also used greatly in fashion, from commercial to couture, to create a variety of modern looks. As technology progresses, I imagine wigs will continue to grow in popularity and new styles and techniques will be developed.